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Course Material – Class VIII Chemistry


  • Learning Objectives

    Understanding about the carbon and its occurrence. Allotropy of carbon- diamond, graphite, fullerene-preparation, properties and uses.

  • Concept Explanation

    Introduction: Carbon is the basis of life, since matter constituting all living things, whether plants or animals, contains carbon. It is one of the most widely distributed elements on the earth and it is the third most important element. i.e., after oxygen and hydrogen, for the existence of life on the earth. The name carbon is derived from the Latin word carbo (meaning coal).


    Carbon is one of the most important non-metallic element. All the biomolecules invariably possess carbon and hydrogen as the major constituents. The significance of carbon lies in the fact that it forms two types of compounds are organic and inorganic compounds.

    Organic compounds: The compounds which are analogous with the corresponding compounds of other non-metallic elements are studied under the branch of inorganic chemistry.

    Inorganic compounds: The chemistry of the wide range of the allotropic forms of carbon also comes in the realm of inorganic chemistry.


    The various compounds of carbon being responsible for the growth and the development of living organisms.

  • Early Introduction of Concepts

    Wherever possible and permissible, we introduce basics of concept in early classes so as to give the students a Holistic Understanding of a Concept

  • CBSE and International Curriculum Integration

    Crystalline allotropic forms of carbon: They have well-defined regular geometrical arrangements of carbon atoms. Diamonds, graphite and fullerene are the widely known
    crystalline allotropes of carbon.

    Formation of diamond: Diamonds are formed in nature by the crystallization of carbon. The carbon present beneath the surface of the earth under specific conditions dissolves
    in the molten rock material present there. The liquid so formed is commonly called magma. When the magma containing carbon is pushed upto the surface of the earth due
    to the volcanic eruption, it gets solidified.

    Formation of natural diamonds: Natural diamonds are formed by the action of high pressure and temperature on the carbon present in the earth at depths of 150 km or so.
    They are mostly brought to the surface by volcanic eruptions. Diamond b earing rocks are called Kimber lite rocks, after the Kimberley mines in South Africa.

    Preparation of artificial diamonds: Synthetic or artificial diamonds are made from graphite. Graphite is subjected to very high temperature (about 0 3000 C ) and pressure.
    The diamonds produced under such conditions are rather small.

    Value of diamonds: The value of a diamond as a gem depends upon: i) Its weight ii) The impurities present in it.

    The weight of a diamond is expressed in terms of carats [1 carat = 0.2 g].


    Some famous natural diamonds are:
    i) KOHINOOR ii) PITTDIAMOND mined in India iii) CULLINAN (the biggest diamond ever found, mined in South Africa).

    Study of diamond and graphite:


  • Practical Application

    Use of Diamond:

    i) Diamonds are used for making different kinds of jewellery.
    ii) It is used as an abrasive material in glass industry.
    iii) It is used for making dies for drawing wires.
    iv) It is used in electronics for generating laser beams.
    v) The delicate operations are performed using diamond.

    Uses of Graphite:

    i) Graphite is used in making leads of pencils.
    ii) It is used as a dry lubricant.
    iii) It is used in manufacturing of refractory crucibles.
    iv) Graphite is used to make printer’s ink (black paint).
    v) Graphite fibers can be used to reinforce plastic, as they are strong.
    vi) It is used in nuclear reactors as a moderator to control the power of neutrons.


  • Learn With Fun


  • Revise

    1. How diamond is synthesized?
    2. Write the various crystalline allotropes of carbon.
    3. Compare the properties of diamond, graphite and fullerene.

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