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Course Material – Class VII Chemistry

Topic: Acids, Bases and Salts

  • Learning Objectives

    Understanding Acid and its sources, Types and preparation of acids with examples, Basicity of an acid, Arrhenius Theory of acids

  • Concept Explanation

    Introduction: There are thousands of different kinds of substances found in nature. Each kind of substance has characteristic properties of its own. On the basis of these properties, we are able to identify their physical and chemical nature.
    The three important categories of chemical compounds are acids, bases and salts. Lemon juice, orange juice, curd and grape juice contain acids. The presence of acids gives the food a sour taste.
    Washing soda, lime soap and bitter gourd contain bases. The presence of bases gives them the bitter taste.
    When acids and bases react with each other to form salts.

    Acids:The word acid as applied to the substances with ‘sour taste’. Many substances can be identified as acids based on their taste.
    A large number of fruits and a few vegetables taste sour. The word “sour” in Latin is described as acidus

    Page-1-Image-1

    Examples: 

    i) The sour taste of a lemon is due to critic acid.

    ii)  Thesourtasteofgrapesortamarindisduetotartaricacidandthatofvinegarisdue to acetic acid.

    iii)  Formic acid is present in the sting of red ants. The sharp pain caused by the sting of an ant, nettles and bees is due to formic acid which is pushed into our body.

    iv)  Vitamin ‘C’ is ascorbic acid present in citrus fruits.

  • Early Introduction of Concepts

    Wherever possible and permissible, we introduce basics of concept in early classes so as to give the students a Holistic Understanding of a Concept

  • CBSE and International Curriculum Integration

    Types of acids:
    On the basis of their origin, acids have been classified into two types.
    These are i) Organic acids ii) Inorganic acids.

    i) Organic acids:They include carbon as one of the element and they originated from  plants and animal’s sources are called organic acids.These are naturally occurring acids. Some of them can be prepared artificially in laboratory.

    Some common examples of organic acids: 

    organic_acids_table

    Note

    In addition to above uric acid is a part of urine. Then, there are amino acids, the building blocks of proteins found in the cells from plants, animals and microbes.

    ii) Inorganicacids:Inorganicacidsdonotcontaincarbon.Theyarealsotermedas mineral acids since they could be prepared by dissolving oxides of minerals in water.The inorganic acids are further subdivided into strong acids and weak acids.

    Strong acid:The acids, in which more than 30% of the molecules of it ionize in water to furnish H+ ions, are called strong acids.

    grade-7-strong-acids

    grade-7-weak-acids

    acid_table1

  • Practical Application

    Applications:
    i) Plain soda is an application to acid. It is used for digestion of food.
    ii) The manufacture of soaps by mixing it with vegetable oil. In manufacturing of soaps
    we use bases.
    iii) Common salt is used in our daily life in food.

    che_7_sptlight

  • Learn With Fun

  • Revise

    1. Mention the different types of acids.
    2. Give few examples of organic acids.
    3. Differentiate between organic and inorganic acids. 4. Write the preparation of acids.

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