Class 10 – algebra
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Algebraic expression:Combination of literals and numbers connected by one or more of the four fundamental operations (+, – , ×, ÷ ) is called an algebraic expression. Example:
Polynomial:Polynomial is a algebraic expression whose literal powers are nonnegative integers. Example:
Polynomial in one variable: A polynomial of the form
Where are real coefficients and is called a polynomial in one variable x. It is denoted by p(x), where n is nonnegative integer. Example: i) is a polynomial of degree two and is called second degree polynomial (or) quadratic polynomial. ii) is a polynomial of degree three and is called third degree polynomial (or) cubic polynomial. 
iii) is a polynomial of degree seven, as seven is the highest power of x. iv) is not a polynomial since the degree of x is i) Every polynomial is an algebraic expression but every algebraic expression need not be a polynomial. ii) The highest power of x is called the degree of the polynomial.
Types of polynomials (based on degree): 1. Linear polynomial: A polynomial of degree one is called a linear polynomial. Examples: General Form: , where a and b are real numbers and . 2. Quadratic polynomial: A polynomial of degree two is called a linear polynomial. Examples:
General Form: , where a, b and c are real numbers and . 
3. Cubic polynomial: A polynomial of degree 3 is called a cubic polynomial.
Examples:
General Form: , where a, b, c and d are real numbers and .
4. Biquadratic polynomial: A polynomial of degree 4 is called a biquadratic polynomial.
They are called quadratic polynomials.
Examples:
General Form: , where a, b, c, d and e are real numbers and .
Value of a polynomial: The value of a polynomial p(x) is obtained on replacing x by k and it is represented by p(k)
Example:
Zero of a polynomial: If the value of the polynomial p(x) is 0 at then ‘k’ is called zero of the polynomial.
Example:Let
Here
2 is zero of the polynomial .
Method to find zero of a polynomial:
Step 1: Equate polynomial to zero i.e., .
Step 2: Solve the equation to get the value of the variable.
Step 3: The value obtained will be the zero of the polynomial.
Example:Find the zeroes of the following:
i) ii)
Solution:
i)
Graphical representation of a polynomial:
i) Linear polynomial:
Let
Case 1: If graph of p(x) is a straight line parallel to x – axis, i.e., it does not meet the axis of x, hence has no zero.
Case 2: If graph of is a straight line, not parallel to  axis, then it meets the  axis at a point and hence has only one zero.
A linear polynomial either has no zero means at most one zero.
ii) Quadratic polynomial:
Let
It is represented by a curve called “parabola” opening upward or downward.
If a > 0, parabola opens upward, whereas for a < 0, parabola opens downward.
Case (i):Here, the graph cuts x – axis at two distant points A and B are two zeros of the quadratic polynomial .
Case (ii):Here, the graph cuts x – axis exactly one point, i.e., at two coincident points. So, the two points of case (i) coincide here to become one point A.
Case (iii):Here, the graph is either completely above the x – axis or completely below the x – axis. So, it does not cut the x – axis at any point.
So, the quadratic polynomial has no zero in this case.
iii) Cubic polynomial:
Let
Case (i): If has 3 zeroes Case (ii): If has 2 zeroes
Case (iii): If has 1 zero Case (iv): If has no zero
(i) A quadratic polynomial has no zero or one zero or 2 zeroes means at most 2 zeroes.
(ii) A cubic polynomial has no zero or one zero or 2 zeroes or 3 zeroes means at most 3 zeroes.
Division algorithm:In polynomials, division algorithm is similar to Euclid’s division algorithm, which can be stated as follows:
If are any two polynomials with , then we can find polynomials and such that where or degree of < degree of .
i) If is a factor of
ii) If then
iii) If then
Division of polynomials:
Steps:
i) Arrange the terms of the dividend and the divisor in descending order of their degrees.
ii) Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor to obtain the first term of the quotient.
iii) Multiply the whole divisor by the first term of the quotient and subtract the product from the dividend.
iv) Consider the remainder as the new dividend and proceed as earlier.
v) Continue this process till a remainder is obtained which is either 0 or whose degree is less than that of the divisor.
Example: Divide and verify by division algorithm.
Solution:
Here
Verification:
Hence proved.
Example: Divide , and verify the division algorithm.
Solution:
We stop here since degree of the remainder is less than the degree of the divisor.
So, quotient , remainder = = 3.
Now,
Dividend = Divisor × Quotient + Remainder
Hence proved.
Turning points of a polynomial: A turning point of a polynomial is a point where the graph of the polynomial changes from sloping downwards to sloping upwards, or vice versa. So, the gradient changes from negative to positive (or) positive to negative.
i) A quadratic polynomial has only one turning point.
ii) A cubic polynomials could have up to two turning points, and so would look something like this.
i) A polynomial of degree n have at most n zeroes.
ii) A polynomial of degree n can have up to (n − 1) turning points.